Edema and Related Medical Conditions

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Sunday, October 21, 2012

Nitric Oxide-Associated Pulmonary Edema in Children With Pulmonary Venous Hypertension.

Nitric Oxide-Associated Pulmonary Edema in Children With Pulmonary Venous Hypertension.

Oct 2012


College of Physicians and Surgeons, Children's Hospital of New York-Presbyterian, Columbia University, 3959 Broadway, CHN 10-24, New York, NY, 10032, USA, jsb106@columbia.edu.


Nitric oxide (NO)-associated pulmonary edema is rarely reported in children; in adults, it is often associated with left-sided heart failure. We report a case series of children with NO-associated pulmonary edema, which was defined as new multilobar alveolar infiltrates and worsening hypoxemia within 24 h of initiation or escalation of NO and radiologic or clinical improvement after NO discontinuation. We identified six patients (0.4-4 years old) with ten episodes of NO-associated pulmonary edema. Diagnoses included atrioventricular canal defect with mitral valve disease (n = 2), pulmonary atresia and major aorta-pulmonary collateral arteries (n = 2), total anomalous pulmonary venous return (n = 1), and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (n = 1). All patients had evidence of pulmonary venous hypertension, and two had mitral valve disease resulting in clinical evidence of left-sided heart failure. Pulmonary edema improved or resolved within 24 h of discontinuing NO. At cardiac catheterization, mean left atrial pressure was <15 artery="artery" disease="disease" in="in" mitral="mitral" mmhg="mmhg" nbsp="nbsp" none="none" occlusion="occlusion" of="of" patients="patients" pressure="pressure" pulmonary="pulmonary" three="three" valve="valve" was="was" whereas="whereas" with="with">15 mmHg in two of five patients. In conclusion, we describe six young children with NO-associated pulmonary edema and pulmonary venous hypertension. Only two of these children had left-sided heart failure: Left atrial pressure as well as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure may not be helpful in identifying children at risk for NO-associated pulmonary edema.

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