Edema and Related Medical Conditions

Comprehensive information on edema, swelling, treatment and medical conditions that can cause edema. For all articles, please click on "Archives"

Sunday, July 15, 2007

Flash Pulmonary Edema Heralding Renal Artery Spasm

Flash Pulmonary Edema Heralding Renal Artery Spasm
Sharifkazemi MB, Zamirian M, Aslani A.
Department of Cardiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Flash pulmonary edema is a condition characterized by sudden and recurrent episodes of dyspnea resulting from acute pulmonary venous congestion in the presence of normal or well-preserved left ventricular systolic function. This is usually associated with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of a single surviving kidney. We describe a patient with clinical presentation of flash pulmonary edema due to renal artery spasm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of flash pulmonary edema due to renal artery spasm. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.


"Flash" pulmonary edema as a clinical manifestation of renovascular hypertension

Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2003 May-Jun

Kalimonovska-Ostrić D, Ivanović B, Ostrić V, Knezivić V, Stojanov V, Simić D.
Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.

One of the clinical manifestations of renovascular hypertension (RVH) may be a recurrent pulmonary oedema both in the absence or in the presence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction. This type of pulmonary oedema characterized as "flash" pulmonary oedema is ascribed to elevated angiotensin II concentrations with consequent hypertension as well as to volume overload resulting from decreased pressor natriuresis when there are significant stenoses of both or one renal arteries.

The investigation included 30 patients with RVH treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the stenosed renal artery (PTRA) and/or stent implantation (PTR-ST) and 30 patients with surgical resection of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

The first group was divided in two subgroups according to the etiology of renal artery stenosis (RAS). In the subgroup with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) the mean age was 37.5 years, in the subgroup with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) 54.8 years and in the group with operated AAA 68.6 years. There were more females than males only in the FMD subgroup (10:3). Two patients of the first group experienced pulmonary oedema, both in the subgroup with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis associated with atherosclerosis of other arteries. Normalization of the blood pressure following PTRA in both and an uncomplicated course after a surgical myocardial revascularization in one of them illustrates the importance of renal revascularization. Pulmonary oedema occurred preoperatively in four out of 30 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm in whom significant renal artery stenoses coexisted. Two patients died despite surgery, one patient is clinically stable and the medicament treatment of heart failure is inevitable in the fourth with a left ventricular aneurysm following myocardial infarction.

The occurrence or recurrence of pulmonary oedema in the absence of other explanation should suggest the possibility of bilateral or unilateral renal artery stenosis requiring renal revascularization for blood pressure regulation as well as for elimination of other manifestations/complications.

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Tuesday, July 03, 2007

Alveolar edema fluid clearance and acute lung injury

Alveolar edema fluid clearance and acute lung injury

Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007 May 21

Berthiaume Y, Matthay MA.
Département de médecine et Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Although lung-protective ventilation strategies have substantially reduced mortality of acute lung injury patients there is still a need for new therapies that can further decrease mortality in patients with acute lung injury. Studies of epithelial ion and fluid transport across the distal pulmonary epithelia have provided important new concepts regarding potential new therapies for acute lung injury.

Overall, there is convincing evidence that the alveolar epithelium is not only a tight epithelial barrier that resists the movement of edema fluid into the alveoli, but it is also actively involved in the transport of ions and solutes, a process that is essential for edema fluid clearance and the resolution of acute lung injury. The objective of this article is to consider some areas of recent progress in the field of alveolar fluid transport under normal and pathologic conditions. Vectorial ion transport across the alveolar and distal airway epithelia is the primary determinant of alveolar fluid clearance.

The general paradigm is that active Na(+) and Cl(-) transport drives net alveolar fluid clearance, as demonstrated in several different species, including the human lung. Although these transport processes can be impaired in severe lung injury, multiple experimental studies suggest that upregulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) transport might be an effective therapy in acute lung injury.

We will review mechanisms involved in pharmacological modulation of ion transport in lung injury with a special focus on the use of beta-adrenergic agonists which has generated considerable interest and is a promising therapy for clinical acute lung injury.

PMID: 17604701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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