Edema and Related Medical Conditions

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Sunday, July 15, 2007

Flash Pulmonary Edema Heralding Renal Artery Spasm

Flash Pulmonary Edema Heralding Renal Artery Spasm
Sharifkazemi MB, Zamirian M, Aslani A.
Department of Cardiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Flash pulmonary edema is a condition characterized by sudden and recurrent episodes of dyspnea resulting from acute pulmonary venous congestion in the presence of normal or well-preserved left ventricular systolic function. This is usually associated with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of a single surviving kidney. We describe a patient with clinical presentation of flash pulmonary edema due to renal artery spasm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of flash pulmonary edema due to renal artery spasm. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.


"Flash" pulmonary edema as a clinical manifestation of renovascular hypertension

Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2003 May-Jun

Kalimonovska-Ostrić D, Ivanović B, Ostrić V, Knezivić V, Stojanov V, Simić D.
Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.

One of the clinical manifestations of renovascular hypertension (RVH) may be a recurrent pulmonary oedema both in the absence or in the presence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction. This type of pulmonary oedema characterized as "flash" pulmonary oedema is ascribed to elevated angiotensin II concentrations with consequent hypertension as well as to volume overload resulting from decreased pressor natriuresis when there are significant stenoses of both or one renal arteries.

The investigation included 30 patients with RVH treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the stenosed renal artery (PTRA) and/or stent implantation (PTR-ST) and 30 patients with surgical resection of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

The first group was divided in two subgroups according to the etiology of renal artery stenosis (RAS). In the subgroup with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) the mean age was 37.5 years, in the subgroup with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) 54.8 years and in the group with operated AAA 68.6 years. There were more females than males only in the FMD subgroup (10:3). Two patients of the first group experienced pulmonary oedema, both in the subgroup with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis associated with atherosclerosis of other arteries. Normalization of the blood pressure following PTRA in both and an uncomplicated course after a surgical myocardial revascularization in one of them illustrates the importance of renal revascularization. Pulmonary oedema occurred preoperatively in four out of 30 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm in whom significant renal artery stenoses coexisted. Two patients died despite surgery, one patient is clinically stable and the medicament treatment of heart failure is inevitable in the fourth with a left ventricular aneurysm following myocardial infarction.

The occurrence or recurrence of pulmonary oedema in the absence of other explanation should suggest the possibility of bilateral or unilateral renal artery stenosis requiring renal revascularization for blood pressure regulation as well as for elimination of other manifestations/complications.

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